In the book Classroom Instruction that Works, a meta analysis was performed on the effect of several instructional strategies listed below. The McRel study showed significant differences when comparing the experimental group to the control group. Based on the results of the study, those students exposed to the instructional strategies had an average net increase of one standard deviation above the overall mean score of the control group.

The study also recommends the inclusion all of these strategies to increase the probability for a net increase in test scores.
  Educational Strategies Gains
  Identifying Similarities and Differences 45%
Classroom Instruction That Works - Identifying Similarities and Differences
  Metaphors - Similies - Opposites - Etc.  
Compare and Contrast Strategy in a Classroom
Compare and Contrast
  Thinking Maps, T-charts, Venn diagrams, classifying, analogies, cause and effect links, compare and contrast organizers  
  Four strategies in the Identifying Similarities and Differences category.  

1. Comparing

2. Classifying

3. Creating Metaphors

4. Creating Analogies

Summarizing and Note Taking 34%
  Marzano's Instructional Strategies - Summarizing & Note Taking  
  Common Core Speaking and Listening 2: Note Taking  
  Teacher models summarization techniques, identify key concepts, bullets, outlines, clusters, narrative organizers, journal summaries, break down assignments, create simple reports, quick writes, graphic organizers, column notes, affinity diagrams, etc.  
Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition 29%
  Classroom Instruction That Works - Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition  
Classroom Behavior? There's an App for That
  Creating a Positive Tone with a "Pat on the Back" (Video 1:21 Min.)  
  Hold high expectations, display finished products, praise students’ effort, encourage students to share ideas and express their thoughts, honor individual learning styles, conference individually with students, authentic portfolios, stress-free environment, high-fives, Spelling Bee, Constitution Day, School Newspaper, etc.  
Increasing Value in Homework and Practices 28%
  Classroom Instruction That Works - Assigning Homework & Providing Practice  
  Retell, recite and review learning for the day at home, reflective journals, parents are informed of the goals and objectives, grade level teams plan together for homework distribution; SLCs; teacher email.  
Using Non-Linguistic Representations 27%
  Classroom Instruction That Works - Nonlinguistic Representations (VIDEO 3:31 Min.)  
  Visual tools and manipulatives, problem-solution organizers, spider webs, diagrams, concept maps, drawings, charts, thinking maps, graphic organizers, sketch to stretch, storyboards, foldables, act out content, make physical models, etc.  
Incorporating Co-Operative Learning Effectively 27%
  Classroom Instruction That Works - Cooperative Learning  
  Cooperative Learning Tool - Silent Card Shuffle  

Integrate content and language through group engagement, reader’s theatre, pass the pencil, circle of friends, cube it, radio reading, shared reading and writing, plays, science projects, debates, jigsaw, group reports, choral reading, affinity diagrams, Students tackle TAKS word problems in groups and explain their answers, etc.

Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 23%
  Classroom Instruction That Works - Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback  
Effective Student Feedback
  Articulating and displaying learning goals, KWL, contract learning goals, etc.  Teacher can display objectives on the in-focus projector and follow-up on the mastery of the objective at the end of the lesson.  
Generating and Testing Hypothesis 23%
  Classroom Instruction That Works - Generating and Testing Hypotheses  
  Generating & Testing Hypotheses Elementary  
  Thinking processes, constructivist practices, investigate, explore, social construction of knowledge, use of inductive and deductive reasoning, questioning the author of a book, finding other ways to solve same math problem, etc.  
Utilizing Questions, Cues, & Advanced Organizers 22%
  Classroom Instruction That Works - Advance Organizers (Video 4:15 Min.)  
  Essential and Guiding Questions (Video 1:55 Min.)  
  Think Alouds (Video 2:55 Min.)  
  Inferencing in Reading (Video 6:49 Min.)  
  Deductive Reasoning (Video 2:30 Min.)  
  Inductive Reasoning (Video 3:45 Min.)  
  Graphic Organizers  
  Graphic organizers, provide guiding questions before each lesson, think alouds, inferencing, predicting, drawing conclusions, skim chapters to identify key vocabulary, concepts and skills, foldables, annotating the text, etc.